Adult alternative chat lifestyle
Vigorous or vigorously active: If this PAL was from a male population, 20 to 25 years old, with mean weight of 70 kg and mean BMR of 7.30 MJ/day (1 745 kcal/day), TEE = 2.25 × 7.30 = 16.42 MJ (3 925 kcal), or 235 k J (56 kcal)/kg/d.
The use of closed-circuit indirect calorimetry in most studies has also been questioned, as this technique might overestimate oxygen consumption and energy expenditure.
For the present consultation, predictive equations derived from a database with broader geographical and ethnic representation were evaluated (Henry, 2001; Cole, 2002).
The report from the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation used a set of equations derived mostly from studies in Western Europe and North America (Schofield, 1985).
Almost half of the data used to generate the equations for adults were from studies carried out in the late 1930s and early 1940s on Italian men with relatively high BMR values, and questions have been raised about the universal applicability of those equations (Soares and Shetty, 1988; de Boer et al., 1988; Henry and Rees, 1991; Arciero et al., 1993; Piers and Shetty, 1993; Soares, Francis and Shetty, 1993; Hayter and Henry, 19; Valencia et al., 1994; Cruz, da Silva and dos Anjos, 1999; Henry, 2001; Ismail et al., 1998).
The present consultation considered that the 24-hour PAL should not be based only on the physical effort demanded by occupational work, as there are people with light occupations who perform vigorous physical activity in their spare time, and people with heavy work who are quite sedentary the rest of the day.
BMR can be measured only under laboratory conditions and in small groups of representative individuals.There is a need to estimate BMR at the population level when using the factorial approach to estimate TEE from the average BMR and PAL value attributable to that population.
Although the new equations had some merits, such as small reductions in the error of prediction and the overestimation bias among men, this consultation concluded that these were not robust enough to justify their adoption at present.Other examples of these calculations are shown at the bottom of each panel in Table 5.1.PAL has been calculated in several studies from measurements of TEE and measurements or estimates of BMR.BMR constitutes about 45 to 70 percent of TEE in adults, and is determined principally by gender, body size, body composition and age.It can be measured accurately with small intra-individual variation by direct or indirect calorimetry under standard conditions, which include being awake in the supine position, ten to 12 hours after a meal, following eight hours of physical rest and no strenuous exercise in the preceding day, and being in a state of mental relaxation and an ambient environmental temperature that does not evoke shivering or sweating.Active or moderately active: If this PAL was from a female population, 20 to 25 years old, with mean weight of 57 kg and mean BMR of 5.60 MJ/day (1 338 kcal/day), TEE = 1.76 × 5.60 = 9.86 MJ (2 355 kcal), or 173 k J (41 kcal)/kg/d.